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2 john 1 who is the chosen lady

[6] John Wesley’s notes on 2 John can be found here. In 1 Peter 5:13, Peter writes, “She who is in Babylon, chosen together (or  co-elect) with you sends you her greetings, and so does my son Mark.” As mentioned in the article, Clement of Alexandria believed that “she” in Babylon was the same person as the chosen lady in 2 John. In 2 John, most scholars agree from biblical evidence that “the elder” was the apostle John. [1] Some Bible scholars believe that 2 John was written by a well-known elder named John (mentioned by Papias and others), and was not written by John the apostle. PP 12:1 (Winter 1998) p. 40. Who Was The “Chosen Lady” Of 2 John? The brevity of the letter argues against it being primarily a letter to a church. The apostle concludes his letter by relaying a message: “The children of your elect sister greet you” (2 John 1:13, ESV). Especially during a time when widespread attacks on the deity of Jesus Christ was the topic of the day! Kuria can be translated as “dear madam” in this context. Lucitis Dexter, in his “Chronicle,” says that this lady’s original proper name was Drusia. When we read the letters that make up the greater part of our New Testament, we are reading someone else’s mail. Just curious. WHO WAS THE CHOSEN LADY? 2 We love you because of the truth that lives in us and will be with us forever. I wanted to comment that I have some relative’s with the last name, Kyriazakos. The chosen lady in 2 John was such a woman. [14] It is true that God’s people in the Old Testament and the Church in the New Testament are often referred to in feminine terms. I mention this in my intro to John’s Gospel here. This is in accord with II John 1, 13. Others suggest that the chosen lady was one of Philip’s daughters (Acts 21:8-9). Most movies about Jesus have middle-aged actors playing the disciples, but the real disciples were probably in their late teens and early twenties during Jesus’ earthly ministry. [Translation in square brackets is from better Greek manuscripts.] It would not have been out of place for John—while writing the letter specifically to Mary—to have addressed the church as a very special lady. 2. 3 Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. 2 John Images and Notes. Was her name Electa, Kyria, or Martha? These verses are not referring to his natural children, but to “children of God” or “Christian disciples.”. We know so little of her subsequent history from the Scriptures; there are only minimal allusions in the Book of Acts (Acts 1:14). ), In the NT, other than the chosen lady and the chosen sister, Rufus is also called “chosen” (Rom 16:13). 5:13) is here. The language of Jesus’ time had such provisions and freedoms of expressions and their thought process was not the one exactly comparable with that the Western European/American one though. 1:14;); and the man who was the recipient of 3 John. More about this here. Like Mary the mother of Jesus (last seen preaching in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost), Philip’s four daughters, Phoebe, Priscilla, Mary of Rome, the apostle Junia, Tryphaena, Tryphosa, Persis, Euodia, Syntyche, Nympha, Claudia, Apphia, and the ministering women of 1 Timothy 3:11, the chosen lady was a minister of the Gospel in the fullest sense of the term, one of many women who were able ministers of the Gospel in New Testament times. By the time John writes this letter he is about 80 years old! Considering how the word is used, it is apparent that kuria was a term of respect, and used for a woman in a powerful or elevated social position. They had a duty to learn, but somebody had to teach them. Regarding the dating of the letter, I would respectfully disagree because of some vital concepts: On Paul’s return from his third missionary journey, he met with the Ephesian elders at Miletus (some 30 miles south of Ephesus) and delivered to them that touching farewell address in which he warned them of the forthcoming false teachers (Acts 20:18-35). And some of these homes were owned by women. I do believe that the chosen lady refers to an individual and not the church. In fact, it is surprising that Jesus didn’t consign her to one of her other four sons. Certainly, there were people still living in Philippi who knew him by name, but Luke does not tell us that name. This is the commandment, That, as ye have heard (pl) from the beginning, ye should walk (pl) in it. So the elect lady that John refers to can be Mary, the Virgin. If the Messiah’s line was corrupted, then Jesus was not the Messiah; man would still be in his sins. I would think that the shape of a cross is common in nature and not necessarily a divine sign. The evidence strongly indicated she was at least a diakonos, a deacon like Phoebe in Romans 16—one who gave pastoral leadership to a house church, if not an episcopos, an overseer—one who had the oversight of a number of house churches. 9 Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God. There are two possibilities as to who this chosen lady is: OPTION #1: This figuratively refers to the entire church [1] Advocates of this view point out that the church is often metaphorically referred to as the “bride” of Christ (Eph. The arguments in favor of interpreting the lady as a metaphor for a church are basically these: First, it is suggested that in a time when the Christian movement had fallen into disfavor with Rome, the metaphorical “chosen lady” would have made the letter appear to be an innocent personal note if it had fallen into hostile hands before reaching its destination. (I particularly dislike this “gospel” and think it says fanciful things, indeed terrible things, about Jesus. Prophecy was clear that the Messiah was to be born IN BETHLEHEM EPHRATAH (Micah 5:2). It is unlikely that the chosen lady was simply a mother. One who insists that the lady is a metaphor must demonstrate that the metaphor would have been understood by the original readers. This is in accord with II John 1, 13. Purpose of 2 John. Smalley does not suggest that we take “the beloved Gaius” as a metaphor for a church! She is the second Eve, who untied the spell from the Father through her intelligent obedience. It is improbable that the two women are one and the same, however. He says that those who teach this heresy are "deceivers." She was so full of the Spirit of Christ that anyone who loved him would have to love her. I truly love all of you and am confident that all who know the truth share in my love for you. The first recipient mentioned in 2 John is the “chosen lady.” Many have assumed that “chosen lady” is used as a metonym, or metaphor, for a congregation, and does not refer to an actual person. This is despite the fact that no congregation is referred to as a “lady” (Greek: kuria) in the New Testament or in later writings. So, we have an “elect lady” who receives the letter, and she has an “elect sister” whose children (her nieces and nephews) also know John. 4. And if she were still living, she would probably have been living with John (John 19:26-27). 5 And now I beseech thee (sg), Lady, not as though I wrote a new commandment unto thee (sg), but that which we had from the beginning, that we love one another. The personal exhortations to love, most notably as a commandment from the beginning, would be amiss if indeed delivered to a single lady. 2 John 1:13 "The children of thy elect sister greet thee. Then, in Romans 16, Paul sends greeting to Rufus and his mother. For example, kuria is used in direct address by Isaac to his mother Sarah in The Testament of Abraham (3.10 recension A) (circa 100 AD); it is used by Hermas to his former owner Rhoda in the Shepherd of Hermas 1:5) (circa 100 AD); and it is used by Perpetua’s brother and father to their sister and daughter, respectively, in the account of Perpetua’s martyrdom (para. 2 John 1:1-13 NASB1995 The elder to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who know the truth, for the sake of the truth which abides in us and will be with us forever: Grace, mercy and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. No evidence suggests that the recipients of 2 John would have understood the term metaphorically. Then in John’s third letter, which we will get to in a few weeks, John writes Gaius to encourage him to receive true teachers. Some of the elect lady’s children may have been her sons and daughters and/or people she had personally led to the Lord. Most Bible scholars date John’s letters to about 90-100AD. 30:23; Isa. We have the New Testament image of the church as the bride of Christ. 2 John Complete Jewish Bible (CJB). If Mary had remained a perpetual virgin, and denied Joseph physical consummation, she would have been living in perpetual sin. In a non-technical context, it would be translated “shepherd.” (The translation “pastor” is simply the substitution of a Latin word for a Greek word.) “Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son : and he called His name Jesus.”. 1 The Elder vnto the elect Lady, and her children, whome I loue in the trueth: and not I onely, but also all they that haue knowen þ e trueth: 2 For the trueths sake which dwelleth in vs, and shalbe with vs for euer: 3 Grace bee with you, mercie, and peace from God the Father, and from the Lord Iesus Christ, the Sonne of the Father in trueth and loue. Moreover by reading other ancient Greek papyri, I have come to the conclusion that Kuria was indeed a lady, as there are many papyrus letters addressed to other Kuriai. This is supported by 1 Timothy 3:13, which implies that overseers were chosen from among those who had served well as deacons. 2 John The Voice (VOICE). She was probably a parent. Drifting back and forth between you (singular) and you (plural) is typical of informal personal correspondence. A metaphor does not work unless others understand the sense in which it is used. Lamar Wadsworth. Your email address will not be published. The mention of this other elect lady and her children further supports the … To whom else could this refer? While I would not build my whole case upon the brevity of the letter, that along with the other factors considered strengthens the case for viewing 2 John as a personal letter from one minister of the Gospel to another. Jesus appeared to James after His resurrection. Your email address will not be published. In John 14:17, the Spirit is called the Spirit of Truth. Ireneaus and Clement of Alexandria both say that John wrote his Gospel from Ephesus. 2 John 1 REV and Commentary - The Elder, to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth, and not only I, but - Bible verse The original recipient knew to whom the writer was referring, but you have no idea. I love all of you in the truth, [] and all those who know the truth love you. Jude, the shortest letter that was clearly written to a church, is twice the length of 2 or 3 John. Christians adopted this as well (see notes on Acts 11:30; 15:6, 22; 1 Tim. 16:13.) ABP_Strongs. “In truth,” as the expression is used in 2 and 3 John, is precisely equivalent to the Pauline expressions “in Christ” and “in the Lord.” Smalley’s argument is the weakest of any offered in support of the metaphorical view. Since the letter is addressed to “a” (no article in the Greek text) chosen lady and her children, this poses no difficulty. Jesus is often referred to as “Lord” (i.e. This is a deceiver and an antichrist. For the first couple of hundred years following the day of Pentecost, most Christian churches were house churches. 2 John Complete Jewish Bible (CJB). 1 The older man* to the chosen lady and to her children, whom I truly love, and not only I but also all those who have come to know the truth, 2 because of the truth that remains in us and will be with us forever. In fact the view is supported by many women in leadership and, as stated earlier, most modern scholars irrespective of sex. We have to keep this in mind. An interesting article but I am worried you miss represent the more modern view of church recipience. Read 2-John 1 verse 1 with historical bible commentary, in-depth study discussion, and advanced version comparisons. As shown by the contexts of Ephesians 5:32 and Revelation 12, the church is sometimes referred to as a woman (see also Galatians 4:26). It still seems to me that it was written to her, but obviously not for the same reasons and Matthew here. The basic meaning of the word is “authority” or “master.” It is very unlikely that kuria (feminine form) is a proper name. I really appreciate your analytical approach to the questionable religious traditions about women’s roles in the Body of Christ. The Gospel of John was written around 100AD, and John’s letters a few years earlier. Perhaps your 90-year-old aunt could tell you about some of them, but you never would be able to identify some of the people mentioned in those old letters. 2 John 1:1 The elder to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who know the truth, 9-11 of 2 John. She was a gracious and loving person. 10 If there come any unto you (pl), and bring not this doctrine, receive (pl) him not into your house, neither bid him God speed: This becomes even clearer when we compare 2 John with John’s other two New Testament letters, especially 3 John, as there are several distinct similarities between 2 John and 3 John. It is also unlikely that she symbolised a church. I have the feeling that the chosen lady is somewhere in Asia. While it is more likely that the word “elect” is simply used to describe the lady, Clement of Alexandra believed that eklektē was this woman’s name, a name we would translate into English as “Electa.” If so, eklektē kuria in 2 John 1:1 could be translated as “to Lady Electa.” However, the sister mentioned in the last verse of 2 John is also given the description as being “elect.” While it is not improbable that two women, somehow related, would have the same name—in Roman times, sisters could have the same name—it is more likely that the chosen lady and the chosen sister are individuals like Rufus, a man described as “chosen” or “elect” in Romans 16:13. The Elder and the Lady: A look at the language of Second John, The First Century Church and the Ministry of Women, Euodia and Syntyche: Women Church Leaders at Philippi, Old Testament Priests and New Testament Ministers, Junias and Junia in Early Commentaries of Romans 16:7, The Consensus and Context of 1 Timothy 2:12, 1 Timothy 2:12 in Context: The Heresy in the Ephesian Church, https://margmowczko.com/equality-and-gender-issues/kuria-lady-in-papyrus-letters/, https://margmowczko.com/authority-in-the-church/. For instance, in verse 5, John speaks directly to the woman and says, “Now I ask you (sg) lady . It would seem that II John was written to this very community, but at an earlier date than I John (since the false teachers, the "Gnostics," evidently still had access to the church in II John, but had seceded from it in I John). As such, our submission to Jesus as Lord is only as complete and sincere as our submission to God’s Word. The other apostles have died martyrs death. We have other examples to show that early Christians often referred to Rome as “Babylon.” Thus, we can safely conclude mat “Babylon” means Rome in 1 Peter 5:13. She believes that if we are in Christ we are part of the New Creation and part of a community where old social paradigms of hierarchies and caste systems have no place (2 Cor. One more question remains. Israel is portrayed as a woman— the sometimes unfaithful wife of Yahweh. Paul’s Qualifications for Church Leaders I will come back to read more later. There is no more reason to make the “chosen lady” into a church than there is to make the “beloved comrade” into a church. 2:20-24), as was the church in Ephesus (1 Tim. This would be someone (or some group) who would know that John was the "Elder.") Finally, Holy Church is the bride of Christ and how can she be sister to St. Mary, the theotokos? By the time that John is subsequently in exile on the isle of Patmos, Ephesus was prominent as the first of the seven churches in Revelation for which Jesus includes a report card. [13] Jerome (ep. Second John - see below where chosen is used instead of elect. 1 The elder to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who know the truth, 2 for the sake of the truth which abides in us and will be with us forever: 3 Grace, mercy and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from … John called those whom he led his children. John certainly wanted the whole church to practice discernment, but the church probably included some new Christians who did not know enough to … 3 Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Father’s Son, will be … The letter, presumably written by the same John (the elder) who wrote 1 John and 3 John, … John used singular pronouns in the Greek when addressing the lady directly (in 2 John 1:4, 5 twice, 13 twice). And rightly dividing God’s Word gets more difficult with every religious generation. 1 From: The Elder To: The chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth — and not only I but also all who have come to know the truth — 2 because of the Truth which remains united with us and will be with us forever: 3 Grace, mercy and shalom will be with us from God the Father and from Yeshua the Messiah, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. So John may have been in his 80s when writing the letters, but Mary would have been 110 at that time, if she were still alive. If you want to study an extrabiblical book outside of the Bible, read the Book of Enoch, or Jasher, or Jubilees. Her children all around the world and of all generations are exhorted with guidelines to lead a life of obedience by the one, whom the Lord entrusted His own mother with, and now through this special relationship with Jesus, mother of all Christians. Of course, some of the children of the elect lady may have been her natural children. Sex is a must for any married couple, which is why sex before marriage as well as adultery are both vehemently condemned throughout Scripture. I would also like to go with Michael that the chosen lady here would most and very much possibly be Our Lady the Virgin. It’s Biblical. To the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth—and not I alone, but also all who have come to know the truth— because of the truth that abides in us and will be with us forever: Grace, mercy, and shalom be with us, from God the Father and from Messiah Yeshua, the Father’s Son, in truth and love! Second John. In my time as a student at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky, Dr. Dale Moody often exhorted us to “Remember that the Bible often sheds considerable light on the commentaries!” Yet all too often commentators follow the interpretations of previous commentators, like sheep following the sheep in front of them right over a cliff. In the context of 2 John, the word probably denotes a woman who was in a place of authority or leadership. Some also argue that the use of “chosen lady” instead of a personal name may just as well indicate John’s concern for the safety of an individual as his concern for the safety of a church. 3 Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and his Son, Jesus Christ, will be with us in truth and love. The letter is addressed to the chosen lady and to her children. 3 John 1:4 is very similar to 2 John 1:4. John certainly wanted the whole church to practice discernment, but the church probably included some new Christians who did not know enough to discern between true and false teaching. Mary and the Women in Matthew’s Genealogy of Jesus, Don Carson and Tim Keller on “I Do Not Permit a Woman to Teach”. She is a possibility for the Chosen Lady, and benefit can be gained from reading the letter from her perspective. Just read through the Second Epistle of John from Mary’s perspective, and see what the Spirit confirms to you. I appreciate it. Priscilla Papers 10:3, Summer 1996. I make several references to the Greek. While English does not distinguish between you (singular) and you (plural)—except in my native deep South where we have the singular “you,” the plural “y’all,” and the emphatic plural “all of y’all”—if we examine personal letters we have written and received, we would find places where the writer was addressing only the individual recipient and also places where the writer was addressing the whole family. I believe this is the strongest objection to the metaphorical view. Marg, thanks so much for the reply. 19:7; 21:2). The word translated “chosen” is a common New Testament word—our English word “elect” comes from it. 2 John 8-9: "Watch out that you do not lose what you have worked for, but that you may be rewarded fully. The “Elect Lady” is loved “by all they that have known the Truth”(v.1). uncritically assumes that the chosen lady and her chosen sister (2 John 13) should be taken as metaphors for churches. This, too, seems to point to far more than simply a prominent personage within their local church! My point would be, the use of the word “leader” assumes the world’s definition of leader as having authority over others. Is this not great? In my reading of ancient papyri, however, I have never come across a congregation called kuria. . Gifts of Stock, Mutual Funds, and Retirement Accounts, CBE International’s Favorite Books of 2020, From My Point of View: Meditation on Luke 7:36-50, How Faith Mission Pioneers Understood Women’s Roles, Sign Up to Get CBE’s Academic Journal Online. Does this suggest the "chosen lady" and her "chosen sister" are churches? 3 Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Father’s Son, will be with us in truth and love. 3 Grace be with you (pl), mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love. 5:17; 1 Pet. 3 There will be with us undeserved kindness, mercy, and peace from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, with truth and love. 2 John 1:1-13 NASB1995 The elder to the chosen lady and her children, whom I love in truth; and not only I, but also all who know the truth, for the sake of the truth which abides in us and will be with us forever: Grace, mercy and peace will be with us, from God the Father and from Jesus Christ, the Son of … There has been much speculation as to who the chosen lady [ and... “ congregation ” or “ church, we would have been understood by the original recipient to! Last view is supported by many women in the church met in homes in the 1800s–1900s large amounts ancient. Feminine leadership box of letters dating from the limited data in 2 John is not, now. To you, Marg ” John can not be writing to a that. Church leader addressing those in his care as his children of tremendous faith and insight... Such person is German theologian, Johann Benedict Carpzov II ( 1639–1699 ) about Gnostic false teachers EPHRATAH ( 5:2. Mistress of an all-female congregation us wish we knew more elect sister greet thee literal! Teachings and false prophecies of a guardian or trustee disciples. ”. ) this the... John was writing to a woman, since Jesus is to know Jesus and John the apostle may have the.... ) or 100 years of age use of the lady to be called “! Martha may well have hosted and led by women and Sisters flesh, Jesus! Kuria when speaking to her any hint of impropriety rather than just a person..! Who knew him by name Electa, could 2 John - and is. Well-Known among the most neglected books of the truth love you because of the first few centuries of the letters... Have the New Testament he is about 80 years old reveal his concern for the heresy be lady!, some believe kuria may have spent their last years at Ephesus is. The word probably denotes a woman metaphors for churches singular to plural community, and appreciate... 13 ) should be taken as metaphors for churches Babylonian empire was long gone by the religious.... As anything other than a real woman however i ’ ve even emboldened the and. A modern commentary would highlight this in a more literarly appealing way than i can ’ t help if! I would think that “ the elder, to the Lord in South.... Is amazing God gives us the ability and humbleness to debate such issues and! And see what the Spirit of Jesus could not help but wonder whether was! Dead by that time interpretation, but somebody had to teach them feminine equivalent of kurios, a common of... Denotes a woman kept on walking in truth those in his care his. Limited data in 2 John 1:1-2 most straightforward explanation of who her “ spiritual children ”... Perpetual Virgin when we read the letters that make up the Maccabees on her mentioned. Yet, having to live with the last name, Kyriazakos similar to 2 John 1:13 `` elect. Lady that John was written up the greater part of John begins ( NIV empahsis mine:! Him and Marg are also appreciated the cliff with that said let ’ letters. To try and identify the chosen lady to be a church ; she was as much a lady! She would have understood the term “ leader ” is loved “ by all other believers spell from limited! John may have been living with John ( “ chosen sister ( 2 John 1:13 ) Mary of Bethany Martha. Revelation in which he refers ( Revelation 12:1 ) to the Greek, including the Greek for! Was not welcome there but Luke does not work unless others understand the sense in which he refers ( 12:1. Actually the woman ’ s daughters ( Acts 21:8-9 ) teaches us in 1 Peter 5:13 certainly she. Direct answer to the recipients of 2 John was a common word in several and... Comes from it most likely have been addressed to women using the default masculine (... That were spreading false teachings around the churches to which 1 John people used 2 john 1 who is the chosen lady... Female 2 john 1 who is the chosen lady leadership commentary would highlight this in the church met in homes in the women s! Reference that makes us wish we knew more were still living in perpetual sin house churches John was a... Teaching that had already passed away and the recipient of 3 John are “ spiritual children ”. High esteem by the time, about 90 or 100 years of age unusual the... Is typical of informal personal correspondence exclude false teachers was primarily her personal responsibility offspring greatly outnumbered nine. You ( plural ) is the mutuality ( equality ) of men and in! Pastor of the Woolford Memorial Baptist church, we are reading someone else ’ s the... What the Spirit is called the Spirit of truth be interpreted differently her children, ( ’... In his sins something shown throughout the Bible, read the letters that make up the part. The difference perpetual sin encourages her to continue in truth and walk in it, including the Greek for! Many verses about salvation, for instance, are written using the term kuria in the trash people!, are written using the term kuria in a more literarly appealing way than i can ’ help. This point is discussed in the 1859 edition of the Haydock Catholic commentary on 2 John be differently... Equivalent of kurios, a house church leaders various articles on 1 John our submission to Jesus as is... Views on the equality of women! 2 use “ lady ” anything. For a church that had already passed away and the Holy church is metaphorically... Abideth not in the truth that lives in us and will be with forever. Other letters she was a woman sincerely disagree with Michael of the lady and her Son were well-known to the! Natural children, ( let ’ s responsibility ends up being nobody ’ s for. That, as stated earlier, most scholars agree from biblical evidence “! ) Mary of Bethany, Martha ’ s Bible commentary Carpzov II 2 john 1 who is the chosen lady 1639–1699 ) she... Devoted to her children: it was written to John about the “ ”... Do believe that the chosen lady, by name Electa later in life i wanted to comment that i a! Not Electa, could 2 John via John that John refers to individual. ( with Philemon and Archippus ) ( Philem John 1:1-2 not give any authority to class! Already read 1 John 2 john 1 who is the chosen lady 3 John 1:4 is very similar to John. Knew the difference she had been devoted to her as Rufus ’ mother this lady had written John! Are plural take this Protevangelium of James and throw it in the.. House church leaders at Philippi Paul ’ s later epistles Jesus it talks about not. Comment that i have a question for you if you don ’ t think that John would have been for. Recipient knew to whom this letter was written all believers love this “ Gospel ” and the recipient unknown! To a place of authority or leadership as little as $ 3 month... Hundred years following the Day of Pentecost, most Christian churches were house churches godly woman and very... Babylon ” and a “ chosen lady and sister may have been metaphors for churches who know the truth ”! Various articles on 1 Timothy 3:13, which implies that overseers were chosen from those! Fact, it is cool to think they are obscure figures for us literal lady israel is portrayed a. Her heart loved him would have been her sons and daughters and/or people she had personally led to the lady. Recipient knew to whom this letter was written with concern about Gnostic teachers. So brief that it was written with concern about Gnostic false teachers primarily... You that the chosen lady ’ s later epistles about women ’ s daughters, confess. Mention the names of many people well-known to both the writer and the same group twice Messiah ; man still. You don ’ t think that “ chosen ” is poimen ): biblical scholarship and a! Chosen from among those who know the truth that remains in us and will with! Consummation through sex it looks like this lady had written to a lady. Inform us that name well as deacons 22 ; 1 Pet you ” ( v.1 )!.... Around 90AD from Ephesus far more than simply a short personal letter from the 1890 ’ s masculine and leadership... Would also like to go with Michael of the time, about 90 or 100 years of age this. One of these places and to her, but somebody had to teach others the.... The Virgin from Macquarie University ( in verse 1 ), possibly Chloe 1! A discussion on this. man who was or was not welcome there her. John tells the congregation not to admit such people into the house i personally the... A housemate from it this suggest the `` chosen lady here would likely. Women in the church met in her home remained a perpetual Virgin thecla. Terms, and the plural ( pl ) “ you ” ( i.e good and bad female leaders neither her! Paul ’ s children may have been doing the same home after Jesus ’ crucifixion ( 19:26-27... Greet thee ( sg ) in the Greek grammar of the truth love you of... Is unlikely that the metaphor would have to ignore vv who confess not that Jesus Christ the! Four sons apostle John leader but that her congregation will be with us.... Effort shared had remained a perpetual Virgin be loved by all other believers truth... Purpose of 2 John 1:13 `` the children of 1, 2 John 1:13 Mary!

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